The Catholic Thing
Kindred, Dearer Than Life Print E-mail
By Brad Miner   
Monday, 04 July 2011

The last American veteran of World War I died recently. With the passing of former doughboy Frank Buckles, you sensed that our memory of the early years of the twentieth century is a fast receding dust cloud. (How many 111 year-olds do you know?) Time passes and even the greatest events lose their grip on us. Nobody remembers the date (September 6) in the year Buckles was born (1901) that everybody once believed we’d never forget: the day President McKinley was assassinated. 

Buckles was a member of a little known unit out of Fort Riley Kansas, the 1st Casual Division, but there were other units that gained fame in the Great War, none more than New York City’s 69th Infantry. Known since its 1849 founding as the “Fighting Irish,” it was chaplains from the regiment who brought that nickname with them to Notre Dame, and to this day the 69th remains an official “Irish heritage unit,” always leading Manhattan’s annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade.

The regiment deployed to France in WWI, a part of its history portrayed in the 1940 film The Fighting 69th. It’s a good movie with superb actors as legendary soldiers: Pat O’Brien as Father Francis P. Duffy (the Army’s most decorated chaplain); George Brent as Major “Wild Bill” Donovan (Medal of Honor recipient and America’s founding spymaster); Jeffrey Linn as poet-sergeant Joyce Kilmer (of “Trees” and “Rouge Bouquet,” who died at the Second Battle of the Marne); and the great Jimmy Cagney as the fictional misfit, Private Jerry Plunkett. In one memorable scene, Plunkett converses with fellow trooper “Mike Murphy,” actually Mischa Moskowitz, and the two carry on in Yiddish, which Cagney learned as a kid being a “Shabbos goy” in his old Manhattan neighborhood.  

Maj. Donovan and Fr. Duffy

In his many film roles, Pat O’Brien often played a priest – never with more grit than in The Fighting 69th. Fighting Father Duffy was born in Canada in 1871, attended Catholic schools there and in New York City, where he was ordained in 1896. He received a doctorate from Catholic University in Washington and taught at St. Joseph’s Seminary in the Dunwoodie section of Yonkers, New York. Duffy was later reassigned to a church in the Bronx and he became official chaplain of the 69th.

On the crossing to France and then in combat during the Great War, Duffy distinguished himself as an extraordinary soldier-priest, assuming a leadership role far beyond that of any Army chaplain before or since. In fact, the great Douglas MacArthur (then deputy chief-of-staff of the division to which the 69th was attached) later revealed that Duffy was considered for the post of regimental commander.

Joyce Kilmer (a former Latin teacher, New York Times feature writer, and Catholic convert) wrote in his journal of men in long lines aboard the troop to France, each patiently waiting his turn to confess to Fr. Duffy. (Duffy wrote his own memoir, Father Duffy’s War, based in part on Kilmers journal.) The altar for Mass was a board atop nail kegs. 

Sgt. Joyce Kilmer

The Fighting Irish were assaulted by guns and cannon, mortar fire and mustard gas – this last horror blinding hundreds. They served in trenches on the front for nearly six months: a thousand killed, a thousand wounded. As Stephen L. Harris tells it in Duffy’s War: Fr. Francis Duffy, Wild Bill Donovan, and the Irish Fighting 69th in World War I, these were tough Catholic kids from legendary neighborhoods: the Gas House District, Five Points, and Hell’s Kitchen. They came from Manhattan’s East and West Sides, from Brooklyn and Queens, Long Island City and the Rockaways, Staten Island and, of course, the Bronx.

They were all Fr. Duffy’s boys, and he shared every danger they faced, traversing the trenches with medics, giving comfort and absolution to the wounded and dying. Duffy described the march of bone-weary soldiers, finally relieved and silently slogging towards blessed moments of rest, but passing through muddy acres strewn with the bodies of their dead:

In the stress of battle there had been but little time to think of them – all minds had been turned on victory. But the men who lay there were dearer to them than kindred, dearer than life; and these strong warriors paid their bashful involuntary tribute [tears] to the ties of love and long regret that bind brave men to the memory of their departed comrades.

At war’s end Duffy returned to Manhattan as rector of Holy Cross Church in Times Square. He said a special Mass at 2:20 in the morning so Kilmer’s former colleagues could receive the Eucharist after Sunday’s New York Times had gone to press.

Times sure have changed in at the Times.

Duffy died in 1932. Five years later, a statue was raised in his memory:

In Charles Keck’s bronze effigy of the soldier-priest, he depicts a stoic Duffy, nearly eight feet tall, in military garb, helmet at his feet and bible in hand.  The statue is set on a pedestal backed by a green granite Celtic cross, which is more than 17 feet tall. [NYC Parks Department]

An edifying edifice to be sure for one of America’s greatest priests. 

Mayor LaGuardia dedicates the Father Duffy Statue (1937)

Brad Miner, a former literary editor of National Review, is senior editor of The Catholic Thing and a senior fellow of the Faith & Reason Institute. One of his books, The Compleat Gentleman, was recently published in a revised edition.
The Catholic Thing is a forum for intelligent Catholic commentary. Opinions expressed by writers are solely their own. 

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Comments (4)Add Comment
written by debby, July 04, 2011
thank you, brad, for this great patriotic piece. adding the movie to my netflix queue even as we speak.
i liked your opening. haha. even my home-schooled daughters and army boy asked, "who's McKinely?" don't yell at me. there's only so much time to teach so much thanks for the short version and the movie.
time. it's a choice between Moses the Bible or MGM. we go with Bible first then watch Heston and forever after it's charlton's voice in our heads as we read Exodus. for war stories it's usually the other way around....
are their great priests in the military now? has your son found one?
written by Manfred, July 04, 2011
You write very well Brad. This is a very enjoyable article. My wife and I spend long weekends in Sharpsburg, MD which is surrounded by the Antietam Battlefield. It was there on Sept. 17, 1862 that the Fighting 69th joined two other "Irish" regiments which attacked headlong across an open pasture. They were among the 23,000 casualties (dead, wounded, missing, North and South) which resulted in that ONE DAY battle. It was such a horror that Lincoln, five days later, signed the Emancipation Proclamation to be effective Jan. 1, 1863 in the hope of creating a force of freed slaves only in the states which seceded.
written by Dennis O'Donovan, July 04, 2011
Being of Irish descent and having no real knowledge of my actual Irish ancestors, I very much appreciated your article, Brad. As I read it, I thought of Pope Benedict's admonition to Europe to not cut off its roots. I think we in America should heed that advice, also. It's good for me to know from where I came, in a larger sense, so I can attempt to live up to the standards those people set. Thank you for writing this.
written by TeaPot562, July 04, 2011
We attended three funeral masses since January for WW II vets - one a Navy mustang who died at 94. Until a few weeks before his death, he and his wife were at daily mass; he sang in our adult choir for over twenty years. SHE ran the monthly adoration in our parish (recruited people, submitted bulletin notices, reminded the priests!) for over a decade, including the years after she quit driving (and HE was laundring the alter linens and driving her to church for Adoration times).
Another died in his middle 80s, was also career Navy, was at Mass most mornings, and acted as sacristan about every two weeks until shortly before his death.
The third I did not know personally.
You may be accurate about WW I memories; but we are losing the "greatest generation" WW II guys at a rapid rate now; and if the ones I know are typical, they will be greatly missed.

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