At first we [Joseph Ratzinger and his brother] weren’t [members], but when the compulsory Hitler Youth was introduced in 1941, my brother was obliged to join. I was still too young, but later as a seminarian, I was registered in the Hitler Youth. As soon as I was out of the seminary, I never went back. And that was difficult because the tuition reduction, which I really needed, was tied to proof of attendance at the Hitler Youth. Thank goodness there was a very understanding mathematics professor. He himself was a Nazi, but an honest man, and said to me, "Just go once to get the document so we have it. . ." When he saw that I simply didn’t want to, he said, "I understand, I’ll take care of it" and so I was able to stay free of it.
Salt of the Earth